AJTR Copyright © 2009-All rights reserved. Published by e-Century Publishing Corporation, Madison, WI 53711
Am J Translational Res 2011;3(3):226-233

Original Article
Elevated levels of CXC chemokine connective tissue activating
peptide (CTAP)-III in lung cancer patients

Gina Lee, Brian K. Gardner, David A. Elashoff, Colleen M. Purcell, Harpavan S. Sandha, Jenny T. Mao, Kostyantyn
Krysan, Jay M. Lee, Steven M. Dubinett

Lung Cancer Research Program of the University of California at Los Angeles Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer
Center, Departments of Medicine, Surgery, David Geffen School of Medicine at University of California Los
Angeles, Los Angeles, California, USA; Greater Los Angeles Veterans Affairs Healthcare System, Los Angeles,
California, USA; and Department of Medicine, New Mexico Veterans Affairs Healthcare System, Albuquerque, New
Mexico, USA.

Received March 7, 2011; accepted March 27, 2011; Epub April 2, 2011; Published May 15, 2011

Abstract: Despite advances in treatments, lung cancer has been the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in
the United States for the past several decades. Recent findings from the National Lung Screening Trial reveal that
low-dose helical computed tomography (CT) scan screening of high-risk individuals reduces lung cancer
mortality. This suggests that early detection is of key importance to improving patient outcome. However, of those
screened with CT scans, 25% had positive scans that require further follow-up studies which often involve more
radiation exposure and invasive tests to reduce false positive results.  The purpose of this study was to identify
candidate plasma biomarkers to aid in diagnosis of lung cancer in at-risk individuals. We found increased
expression of the CXC chemokine connective tissue-activating peptide (CTAP)-III from plasma specimens of lung
cancer patients compared to at-risk control subjects. Identification of the peptide was confirmed by the addition of
an anti-NAP-2 antibody that recognizes CTAP-III and NAP-2.  We also quantified and verified the increased levels
of plasma CTAP-III with ELISA in patients with lung cancer (mean  SD, 1859  1219 ng/mL) compared to
controls (698  434 ng/mL; P<0.001). Our findings demonstrate elevated plasma levels of CTAP-III occur in lung
cancer patients. Further studies are required to determine if this chemokine could be utilized in a blood-based
biomarker panel for the diagnosis of lung cancer. (AJTR1103002).

Keywords: Lung cancer, connective tissue activating peptide (CTAP)-III, neutrophil activating peptide (NAP)-2,
CXC chemokines

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Address all correspondence to:
Brian K. Gardner, PhD
Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine
David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA
37-131 CHS,10833 LeConte Ave
Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA.
Tel: (310) 206-3881; Fax: (310) 267-2829